Zilembo zachi Greek

Tayipa wolemba ndi zilembo zachi Greek

Zilembo zachi Greek zimakhala ndi zilembo 24. Zimanenedwa kuti idapangidwa mu IX BC ndipo kuti ngati tiyenera kulingalira za komwe idachokera, iyenera kuti idachokera ku Foinike. A Greek anali kuwongolera ndikusintha mpaka udalembedwa ndikumveka komwe kumawazindikira.

Chimodzi mwazosiyana kwambiri za zilembo zachi Greek ndikuti zimakhala zosiyana Zizindikiro zamatchulidwe zikafika posiyanitsa chilembo chilichonse, kaya mavawelo kapena makonsonanti. Inde, zilembo zakale zachi Greek komanso zamakono zili ndi zilembo zofanana, koma mosakayikira, zakhala ndi kusiyana kwakukulu. Chofunikira kwambiri chimayang'ana pakumveka ndipo potero, pamatchulidwe a aliyense wa iwo.

Chiyambi cha zilembo zachi Greek

Monga tanena kale. chiyambi cha afabeti Yachigiriki chinayambira ku zolemba za Afoinike. Agiriki adaganiza zosinthira chifukwa chophweka. Moyo wawo umangodalira malonda m'dera la Mediterranean. Chifukwa chake, kuti athe kulumikizana ndi anthu ena monga Afoinike, amayenera kulumikizana nawo kudzera m'makalata komanso phokoso. Ngakhale Agiriki adayambitsa zosintha zingapo, ngakhale kuyambira pazizindikiro za Afoinike. Pang'ono ndi pang'ono, idafalikira kumadera onse: kuyambira zolemba mpaka sayansi.

Makalata achi Greek

Makalata achi Greek

kwa A Kalata yoyamba ya zilembo ndizomwe timadziwa kuti alpha. Umu ndi momwe umatchulidwira m'Chigiriki chamakono, pomwe m'mbuyomu unkadziwika kuti alpha.

Bb Amadziwika ndi onse ngati kalata ya beta. Koma patapita zaka, m'Chigiriki chamakono, amatchedwa vita.

g G Kalatayo imadziwika kuti gamma. M'Chigiriki chamakono lasinthidwa ndipo limatchedwa ghama, lomwe timadziwa kuti g.

d d  Kalatayo do delta yasintha kukhala yachi Greek ku dhelta.

ndi E Epsilon sinasinthe dzina lake kuchokera m'Chigiriki chamakono kapena chamakono.

zZ dseta ndi kalata yotsatira mu zilembo. Dzeta wa Chigiriki wakale komanso wamakono, dzina. Phokoso lawo limaphatikizapo [zd], [dz], ndi [z].

H H Mukudziwa kuti ndi Eta. M'Chigiriki chamakono amatchedwa ita. Phokoso lakale kwambiri linali e: koma lero lakhala [i].

Chani Dzina lake? Theta, koma m'Chigiriki chakale. Zamakono zasintha mu thita. Phokoso lake limakhalabe mu [th].

ine i Imadziwika mofanana ndi iota. Si kalata yomwe yasinthidwa ngati yapita. Lero phokoso lake ndi la [i]. Popeza ilibe kusiyanitsa kwa nthawi yayitali i monga kale.

k k Kalatayo kappa yasintha kukhala Mgiriki wamakono pafupifupi chimodzimodzi, kupatula kuti ili ndi "p" yopuma.

L L Kalata lambda tsopano imadziwika kuti lamda ndipo imagwirizana ndi [l]

m M Poyamba wanga ndipo kenako wanga, koma nthawi zonse kukhala chilembo m.

nN Zomwezi zidachitikanso ndi mnzake kalata n. M'Chigiriki chakale amadziwika kuti ny ndi m'Chigiriki chamakono monga ni.

x x  Silinasinthe mdzina lake ndikupitilizabe kusungabe mawu [ks]

kapena Icmicron ndi kalata o, m'Chigiriki chakale komanso chamakono.

tsa P  N'chimodzimodzinso ndi kalata P, yomwe imatchedwa pi.

r R  Rho poyamba ndipo pambuyo pake amadziwika kuti ro.

S S Kalata S kapena sigma nawonso analibe kusiyana malinga ndi dzina lake kapena mawu 

t T Tau anali kalata t, yomwe kenako imadziwika kuti taf.

uU  Iyi ndiye kalata ipsilon. Poyamba imadziwika kuti `ypsilon, koma idasintha kalata yoyamba zaka zingapo pambuyo pake. Phokoso lake limachokera ku [u:] mpaka [y:]. Ngakhale patapita nthawi idasinthidwa mpaka [i]

f F Tikafika ku kalata fi, monga ikudziwika lero. Ngakhale m'Chigiriki chakale kwambiri amatchedwa, phi. Phokoso [ph], lidakhala [f].

c c Tili m'kalatayo Ji. Ngakhale ilinso ndimitundu yayikulu kwambiri pomwe amatchedwa Chi. Phokoso [kh], lomwe linasintha kukhala [x], [ç].

ndi Y Kalata ya psi sinasinthe mwina mdzina lake kapena mkokomo.

W W  Kalata yomaliza ndi Omega. Kalata "o" yomwe imamaliza zilembo zotchuka zachi Greek.

Zilembo zakale zachi Greek

Zilembo zachi Greek

Panali nthawi, momwe boma lirilonse, linali ndi njira zake zosankhira zilembo. Zinali pano zokha zilembo zomwe timazindikira kuti ndi zilembo zazikulu zinagwiritsidwa ntchito. Kwa iwo kunalibe mtundu wina kuposa uwu. Mwachitsanzo, kalata a (alpha) idayimilidwa ndi ma capital A awiri m'malo ngati Atene, Corinth, kapena Argos. Komabe, zilembo ngati g, zomwe m'Chigiriki ndi g, zimayimiriridwa mosiyanasiyana ku Ionia ndi Euboea kapena Argos.

Tiyenera kunena kuti chifukwa cha zilembo zakale zachi Greek, tili ndi zolembalemba zabwino kwambiri. Mwa iwo, ndikofunikira kuwunikira omwe ali ndi udindo waukulu ngati izi Plato, Aristophanes, Xenophont kapena Sophocles, pakati pa ena. Ichi ndichifukwa chake tikamanena zachi Greek zachi Greek, timakhala tikunena za zolemba. Fomuyi idatengera zomwe zidalankhulidwa ku Athens. Kuphatikiza apo, inali ndi mphamvu yayikulu ya Ionic. Chifukwa chake titha kunena kuti ndizosiyana ndi Chi Greek zomwe zatilola kudziwa miyala yamtengo wapatali.

Zilembo zakale zachi Greek

Kulemba zilembo zachi Greek

Mosakaikira iwo makina olemba omwe Agiriki anali nawo zinali za afabeti. Tikamayankhula za Chigiriki chakale tiyenera kutanthauzira ngati mitundu ya idooma iyi. Zolemba zoyambirira zolembedwa kuyambira XNUMXth century BC. Tiyenera kukumbukira kuti anali ndi lingaliro lolemba laulere. Izi ndichifukwa choti malemba apezeka pomwe njira yoyambira kulemba inali kuchokera kumanja kumanzere. Ngakhale panali njira yatsopano yotchedwa magwire. Izi ndikuti adasinthanso momwe amalemba.

Mlomo Alveolar Kuonetsetsa
Kulimbikitsidwa Kwambiri Maphunziro - (j) Th - (q) Kh - (c)
Ogontha Ogwira Ntchito P - (p) T - (t) K - (k)
Sonora Yokhazikika B - (b) D - (d) G - (g)

Nthawi zina zimayambira mbali yakumanja komanso m'mawu ena, kumanzere kumakhala poyambira. Poyamba, Agiriki adazindikira kuti safunikira makonsonanti ambiri mu zilembo zawo. Kotero iwo anatenga Afoinike ena, koma adawasintha mavawelo. Zachidziwikire, fayilo ya zizindikiro kapena ma consonant awiri iwo ali kale gawo la chitukuko chachi Greek ichi osati cha Afoinike. Zachidziwikire, m'chigawo chino tiyenera kunena kuti ntchito za Homer (Iliad ndi Odyssey) zidalembedwa m'Chigiriki chakale.

Zilembo zamakono zachi Greek

Makalata achiheberi achi Greek

Mosakayikira, tikudziwa kuti zilankhulo zimasintha pakapita zaka. Malangizo azilankhulo amapangitsa chisinthiko kukhala chodabwitsa kwambiri. Chifukwa chake tikamalankhula za zilembo zamakono zachi Greek, tiyenera kukambirana za chilankhulo chovomerezeka ku Kupro ndi Greece. Inde, kalembedwe ka mawu komanso kalembedwe kapangitsa kuti chilankhulo chikhale chosiyana kwambiri ndi kale. Zimanenedwa kuti ngakhale olankhula Chigiriki amakono amayenera kukhala ndi maphunziro ndi malingaliro oyenera kuti amvetsetse Chigiriki choyambirira.

Phokoso ndi lomwe lasiyana kwambiri. Mwachitsanzo, makina akale a mavawelo ankasiyanitsa pakati pamiyeso yayitali, ma diphthong omwe anali angapo, ndi kutalika kwa mawu aliwonse. Mu zilembo zamakono zachi Greek, imangokhala ndi machitidwe osavuta kwambiri pomwe a mavawelo asanu ndi achidule. Izi zikutanthauza kuti palibe kusiyana pakati potseguka. Ilinso ndi mawu osafotokozedwa m'malo mwa oyimilira ndi achifwamba omwe Agiriki akale anali nawo.

zilembo Kutchulidwa Makalata
Chigiriki Chakale Zochitika B,d,g
Chigiriki chamakono Zipangizo v,g,d

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