Mayan anali ndani?

Chichen Itza

Anali ndani Mayan? A Mayan akhala m'modzi mwa anthu ofunikira kwambiri ku America ndi padziko lonse lapansi. Chikhalidwe cha ku America cha ku America chisanafike ku Columbian chinabadwa pafupifupi mchaka cha 2600 BC Anthu ambiri atakhala m'magulu osamukasamuka omwe nthawi zonse amafunafuna chakudya, madzi ndi malo abwino ogona, adamanga nyumba ndi akachisi momwe chikhalidwe chidapangidwira. iwo apadera.

Pachifukwa ichi, tikadziwa kuti amuna, akazi ndi ana awa omwe adakhala zaka zambiri Christopher Columbus asanafike ku America anali ndani, titha kunena popanda kukayika konse kuti anali anthu omwe anali atapita patsogolo kwambiri.

Mayan ali kuti?

Chigawo cha Mayan

Kuti timvetse kuti Mayan anali ndani, tiyenera kudziwa kaye komwe ali. Kwenikweni tawuni iyi yomwe idapatsa dziko lapansi zikhulupiriro zazikulu komanso kupita patsogolo kwamatekinoloje, idakhazikitsidwa kumwera chakumwera kwa Mexico, makamaka mu Yucatán komanso mkati mwa gawo la Guatemala ndi Honduras.

Adapeza malo abwino kwambiri ku America: gawo lake lalikulu ndi chigwa chachikulu chomwe chili ndi mapiri ochepa ndi mapiri okutidwa ndi nkhalango. Kuphatikiza apo, pali nyanja khumi ndi zinayi zomwe zimadutsa mtsinje wapakati wa Petén (Guatemala).

Mbiri ya Amaya

Mbiri ya Amaya imagawika magawo anayi: zachikale (8000-2000 BC), preclassic (2000 BC-250 AD), clásico (250 950 AD) ndi nsanamira (950-1539 AD). Komanso sitingayiwale za nthawi yothandizira, yomwe inali pamene a Spanish anafika ku America, pakati pa 1511 ndi 1697 AD. C., chaka chomwe chitukuko chimaganiziridwa kuti chidasowa.

Koma nchiyani chinachitika m'zaka zimenezo? Tikamayankhula zaka, inde, tikuwona kuti a Mayan adakhala kalekale, koma zidawachitikira nchiyani? Kodi adachita chiyani kuti adziyese okha otukuka kwambiri padziko lapansi? Komanso.

Mbiri ya Mayan imayambira ngati ya magulu ena akuluakulu: anali kufunafuna malo oti akhazikike. Pankhani ya otsogolera athu, malo oyamba omwe adasankhidwa anali Neck, ku Belize, pafupifupi 2600 BC. C. Mu 1800 a. C. kale Amalima chimanga, nyemba, sikwashi ndi chilili, kotero kuti zimadziwika kuti panthawiyi woyamba madera okhala amene adapanga mtundu wina wamaluso womwe upitilize mpaka pano: zoumbaumba.

mabwinja a mzinda wa Mayan

Pang'ono ndi pang'ono midziyo inakhala mizinda, omwe anali ndi olamulira kapena mafumu awo a Mayan. Zaka zingapo pambuyo pake, munthawi yachikale, adamanga zipilala za deti pogwiritsa ntchito kalendala ya Long Count, yomwe ndi kalendala yosavuta yobwereza yaku Mesoamerican.

Nthawi imeneyo idadziwika ndi kutukuka kwa kutukuka kwamatauni komanso zomanga zazikulu, komanso kukula kwanzeru pamaluso. Panali madera osiyanasiyana am'mizinda omwe anali mgulu lamgwirizano ndi maudani.

Komabe, m'zaka za zana lachinayi adakumana ndi kugwa kwakukulu kwandale chifukwa cha nkhondo yamkati yomwe anali akuvutika nayo, chilala komanso mphamvu yayikulu yomwe anthu ochulukirapo adayamba kukhala ndi chilengedwe. Komabe, mizinda yofunika, monga Chichén Itza, idasiyidwa.

Pomaliza, aku Spain "adathetsa" vutoli m'njira yawoyawo: kulowetsa ndi kuwononga America yonse, ndikupangitsa kuti onse omwe sanafune kuwamvera asowa.

Zidwi za chitukuko cha Mayan

njoka yamayi

Tsopano popeza tikudziwa kuti Mayan anali ndani, tiyeni tiwone zina mwazisangalalo zachitukuko ichi. Tiyenera kunena kuti chikhalidwe ichi cha ku Central America chisanachitike ku Spain chidadziwika phunzirani ndikuwona mlalang'ambawo, komanso pomanga ndi zomangamanga nyumba zazikulu. Kuphatikiza apo, chitukuko chachikulu chakalechi chidaperekedwa kwa amange mizinda yawo kutengera malo azikondwerero ndi mapiramidi mpaka lero.

Zidzakusangalatsaninso kudziwa kuti a Mayan adasiya cholowa chawo chosemedwa pamiyala, ngati mauthenga azakuthambo ndi esoteric monga Kalendala yawo ndi Maulosi awo 7, omwe apereka zambiri zokambirana kumadzulo, komwe amakhulupirira kuti pa Disembala 21 2012, tsiku lomwe kalendala ya Mayan imatha, linali lomaliza; ngakhale makamaka m'modzi mwa zoneneratu zake akuti tsikulo lidzakhala "kutha kwa mantha."

Izi zikutanthauza kuti, malinga ndi a Mayan, munthu akhoza kuchita zinthu ziwiri: kudyetsa chidani chake ndikuchotsa mitundu ya anthu padziko lapansi, kapena kusintha kwake kukhala mgwirizano wamgwirizano ndi chilengedwe ndikumvetsetsa kuti iye si chinthu china .chizindikiro china chomwe chimapanga dziko lapansi, Milky Way, ndi china chilichonse chomwe sichingafanane ndi gulu lathu la nyenyezi.

Ngakhale anali achikhalidwe chopitilira zaka zitatu, mwamwayi ma Mayan, adasiya zikhalidwe zambiri zamachitidwe awoMasiku ano, chifukwa cha zinthu zambiri zakale zakale komanso ntchito yabwino kwambiri yochokera kwa akatswiri ofukula zakale padziko lonse lapansi, ndizotheka kudziwa mbali iliyonse ya moyo wa nzika zake komanso miyambo yomwe adachita.

Tiyenera kunena kuti zambiri zofunika pachikhalidwe cha Mayan zidawonongedwa ndikufika kwa Aspanya, omwe amawona chikhalidwe cha Amaya ngati "ntchito ya mdierekezi", zimangoganiza chilichonse chomwe chikadadziwika chokhudza Mayan ngati izi sizinawonongeke.

Kodi mumakayikira za omwe anali mayan ndipo chikhalidwe chawo chinali chotani?


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