Chikhalidwe chofunikira kwambiri ku America

Chikhalidwe cha Mayan

Ngati tikufuna kupanga zikhalidwe ndikufunika kwawo kumayiko awo, ndiye kuti tiyenera kuyamba ndi zikhalidwe zofunikira kwambiri ku America. Ndichimodzi mwazinthu zofunikira, chifukwa cha zikhalidwe zomwe zidadutsa mdziko lino, asiya cholowa chofunikira kwambiri.

Chikhalidwe cha Mayan

mabwinja a mayan

La Chikhalidwe cha Mayan Idakhazikitsidwa munthawi yotchedwa Pre-Classic nyengo (2000 BC - 250 AD). Amaya amakhala kumwera komanso kumwera chakum'mawa kwa Mexico. Komanso kufika kudera la Guatemala kapena Honduras. Gulu lake lazachuma lidaganiziranso magulu atatu osiyanasiyana. Pamwambamwamba pamakhala akuluakulu kapena abwanamkubwa, kenako ogwira ntchito mwapadera ndipo omaliza, anthu wamba.

Iwo anali ndi boma lovomerezeka, komwe kunali mayiko odziyimira pawokha. Mzinda uliwonse kapena boma lililonse limayang'aniridwa ndi mfumu. Njira yake yolembera inali kuphatikiza zilembo zamatchulidwe okhala ndi malingaliro. Mitundu ina ya ma hieroglyphs. Zinali zotsogola kwambiri kotero zinali zokhazokha momwe chilichonse cholankhulidwa chitha kuyimiridwa polemba. Monga zimachitikira masiku athu ano.

Atisiyiranso zotsalira za kapangidwe kawo ngati mapiramidi. Mizinda ikuluikulu idapezekanso, komanso malo azipembedzo. Koma osati zokhazo, komanso masamu adachita bwino kwambiri pogwiritsa ntchito njira yowerengera ya 20. Kuwona zakuthambo kunali kolondola kwambiri munthawi imeneyi, monga kuyenda kwa mwezi kapena mapulaneti.

Iwo anali ndi chipembedzo cha Polytheistic popeza amapembedza milungu ingapo osati umodzi wokha. Anapereka nsembe kwa anthu komanso nyama. Onsewa, kuti athe kukonzanso ubale wawo ndi milungu yomwe amapembedza. Mankhwala omwe chikhalidwe cha Mayan anali nawo atha kufotokozedwa ngati chisakanizo pakati pa matsenga ndi sayansi.

Chikhalidwe cha Aaztec

Chikhalidwe cha Aaztec

Kunali kumapeto kwa zaka za zana la khumi ndi ziwiri, pomwe kumenya nkhondo ndi kuwukira kunalinso kofunika m'chigwa cha Mexico. Kumbuyo kwawo, chimakhala chotchedwa chikhalidwe cha Aztec. Aaztec anali mtundu wankhondo wankhondo komanso osonkhanitsa, komanso alimi. Pachifukwa ichi, adakakamizidwa kuti apange ngalande zapa ngalande zokometsera nthaka. Zachidziwikire, kuwonjezera pa kufunika kwa ulimi, malonda nawonso adakula kwambiri. Kuchokera kumsika wakomweko kupita kumayiko akunja, zidabweretsa chitukuko.

Makonzedwe amizinda anali ndi mawonekedwe amakona anayi. Nthawi zonse panali malo apakati ndipo zowonadi, nyumba zachipembedzo mozungulira. Kachisi wa Aztec anali amodzi mwa nyumba zofunika kwambiri. Nyumbazi zimatha kuwoneka zopangidwa ndi makoma a nthambi ndi matope ndi denga lofolera, kapena ndi miyala yazomangamanga zina zamakono. Ankadyera pansi, ngakhale kuti anthu olemera kwambiri anali ndi mipando yamatabwa.

Kwa milungu ya aztec Anaperekedwanso chilichonse chomwe chinali chamtengo wapatali kwa anthu. Zinthu monga chakudya, maluwa, komanso zodzikongoletsera. Komanso mwazi wa anthu inali ina ya zoperekazo. Amakhulupirira kuti mulungu amadzichirikiza pamwazi womwewo.

Ziyenera kutchulidwa kuti pachikhalidwe ichi zolemba pakamwa osati zolembedwa zochuluka kwambiri. Iwo anali opambana koposa zonse mu zakuthambo, ngakhale sanali kutali ndi zamankhwala kapena zamasamba.

A Inca

Mabwinja a Inca

Sitingaleke kuyankhula za zikhalidwe zina zofunikira ku America. Ainka anayamba kufalikira kuchokera ku Cuzco. Ufumu uwu udagawika zigawo zinayi ndipo lirilonse la iwo lidalamuliridwa ndi wamkulu wotchedwa 'Apo'. Gulu lachitukuko linali ndi magulu achibale omwe anali ogwirizana ndi zolumikizana zamagazi.

Pamlingo wapamwamba kwambiri panali Inca. Ankadziona ngati mbadwa ya Dzuwa. Amatha kukwatirana ndi akazi osiyanasiyana, ngakhale woyamba kumukwatira ndi amene adzakhale wapadera kwambiri ndipo angatchulidwe kuti mfumu. Pansi pa Inca panali olemekezeka, akuluakulu ndi ansembe.

Tiyenera kunena kuti maziko azachuma anali ulimi. Kuthirira kumayang'ana mndandanda wa ngalande, momwe madzi ofunikira amapitilira. Adabzala kuyambira chimanga mpaka mbatata, komanso sikwashi kapena chili. Zachidziwikire, kumbali inayo, sitingalephere kutchula kapangidwe kake. Imadziwika kuti ndi imodzi mwangwiro kwambiri. Ankagwiritsa ntchito luso lapamwamba komanso kugwiritsa ntchito mwala bwino, ngakhale amagwiritsanso ntchito zitsulo ngati wina aliyense ndipo akazi adaluka ubweya ndi thonje. Mapangidwe omwe anali nthano imodzi kapena pulani yapansi, yokhala ndizolemba.

Kalendala ya Aztec

Iwo amaphunzira mayendedwe a nyenyezi ndipo kuchokera kumeneko, anali ndi kalendala yabwino. Kwa iwo matendawa amawamvetsa ngati chilango kapena tchimo lomwe wodwalayo wachita. Pofuna kuyesa kusintha, mankhwala azachipatala anali chida chake chabwino kwambiri. 

Chikhalidwe cha Paracas

Chikhalidwe cha Paracas

Zotsalira zake zakale zimapezeka pachilumba cha Paracas, kumwera kwa Pisco. Mkati mwa ziwiya zadothi, timapeza mbale zingapo zozungulira zomwe zimalumikizidwa ndi chogwirira. Koma kuwonjezera pa zoumbaumba kapena zokongoletsa, m'pofunika kuwunikira zopereka zawo pokhudzana ndi opaleshoni. Iwo anali nazo kale zida monga scalpel ndi zopalira kuti athe kupanga zotchedwa zopweteketsa.

Chikhalidwe cha Vicus

Malo ake ofukula zakale anali kumwera chakum'mawa kwa Chulucanas. Mu chikhalidwe ichi tiyenera kuwunikira mikhalidwe yake pazoumbaumba. Mmenemo mungapeze ntchito zoyambira kuzosavuta kupita kuzomwe zili zolondola kwambiri komanso zokongola. Momwemonso anali ofunikanso pankhani yazitsulo. Ankagwiritsa ntchito golide, siliva ndi mkuwa.


Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi zikutsatira mfundo zathu za malamulo okonzekera. Kuti mufotokoze cholakwika dinani Apa.

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