Potero kunabadwa chilankhulo (gawo I)

Zolemba za cuneiform

El chilankhulo zinawoneka ngati zikhalidwe zidayamba kukhala zovuta komanso kusintha. Izi zidapatsa mwayi ansembe omwe adalemba omwe adapereka zopereka, amalonda pamalonda awo pakati pamagulu osiyanasiyana a anthu, ndi atsogoleri kupambana kwawo pankhondo, komanso malamulo omwe anthu awo amayenera kutsatira.

Makalata omwe tikugwiritsa ntchito masiku ano adachokera ku glyphs, zizindikilo zomwe zimayimira zinthu ndi malingaliro, ngakhale kupangidwa kwa chilankhulo cholembedwa sikukutchulidwa kuti ndi chikhalidwe china chilichonse, koma zikuwoneka kuti zakhala zikukula m'mitundu ingapo nthawi yomweyo, zaka masauzande angapo zapitazo.

Zithunzi

Kulemba kunayamba ndi zithunzi (zithunzi) za zolemba zogwiritsa ntchito tsiku ndi tsiku. Pulogalamu ya zithunzi ankapangidwa pojambula kapena kukanikiza zinthu pa dothi lonyowa. Zambiri mwazizindikirozi zapezeka pazofukula m'mabwinja m'malo omwe amadziwika kuti anali azaulimi. M'malo mwake, zitsanzo zakale kwambiri zolembedwa zomwe zapezeka zikugwirizana ndi chakudya cham'mawa chomwe chimaperekedwa kwa nzika iliyonse.

Zolemba zoyambirira

Zina mwa zolemba zoyambirira zamtundu wa anthu zidalembedwa pafupifupi 3500 BC ndipo zidapezeka ku Pakistan, pamalo ofukula zakale a Harappa. Zolemba izi sizinafotokozedwe. Ndiosiyana ndi zitsanzo zolembedwa ku Egypt ndi Iraq, zomveka bwino zokhudzana ndi malonda a tirigu, nthaka komanso malonda a nyama. Mesopotamia (Iraq yamasiku ano), Egypt wakale ndi India wakale adakambirana, kotero nkutheka kuti lingaliro lolemba lidafalikira pakati pawo. Mesopotamiya inali gawo la chikhalidwe cha Asumeriya. Zolemba zake zoyambirira zimadziwika kuti cuneiform (yopindika ngati mphete) chifukwa cha kalembedwe kake.


Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi zikutsatira mfundo zathu za malamulo okonzekera. Kuti mufotokoze cholakwika dinani Apa.

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